Research Article
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Preparation and Characterization of Tung Oil Loaded Melamine Formaldehyde Microcapsules

Year 2023, Volume: 44 Issue: 4, 703 - 709, 28.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.17776/csj.1299101

Abstract

In this study microcapsules were prepared by in-situ polymerization route with melamine formaldehyde as a shell material and tung oil as core material. Melamine formaldehyde (MF), a thermosetting polymer, is one of the most widely used monomers in microencapsulation due to its superior mechanical strength and thermal stability. Tung oil contains unsaturated double bonds that can be oxidized to form a film in air. Tung oil is fast drying and biodegradable, besides it is low cost and does not pollute the environment. Most importantly, tung oil is a versatile substance in industry. Therefore, tung oil is a good choice as core material. The chemical structure of microcapsules were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface morphology and particle size and distribution were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The thermal behavior of microcapsules and tung oil were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the spherical microcapsules (particle size of mostly 4-5 μm) were produced with a filling content of 15.64 wt.%, and a yield of 49.78 wt.%. The microcapsules exhibit a good thermal stability

Supporting Institution

TÜBİTAK TEYDEB 1501-Industry R&D support program

References

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  • [6] Mamusa M., Resta C., Sofroniou C., Baglioni P., Encapsulation of volatile compounds in liquid media: Fragrances, flavors, and essential oils in commercial formulations, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 298 (2021) 102544.
  • [7] Singh M.N., Hemant K.S., Ram M., Shivakumar H.G., Microencapsulation: A promising technique for controlled drug delivery, Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5 (2) (2010) 65-77.
  • [8] Meng Q., Zhong S., He S., Gao Y., Cui X., Synthesis and characterization of curcumin-loaded pH/reduction dual-responsive folic acid modified carboxymethyl cellulose-based microcapsules for targeted drug delivery, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 105 (2022) 251-258.
  • [9] Konuklu Y., Unal M., Paksoy H.O., Microencapsulation of caprylic acid with different wall materials as phase change material for thermal energy storage, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 120 (2014) 536-542.
  • [10] Lin Y., Zhu C., Alva G., Fang G., Microencapsulation and thermal properties of myristic acid with ethyl cellulose shell for thermal energy storage, Applied Energy, 231 (2018) 494-501.
  • [11] Zou L., Li S., Li L., Ji W., Li Y., Cheng X., Synthesis of TiO2 shell microcapsule-based phase change film with thermal energy storage and buffering capabilities, Materials Today Sustainability, 18 (2022) 100119.
  • [12] Can A., Erkan G., Duran H., Sivrikaya H., Microencapsulated di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) with a polyurethane shell: characterization and its properties in wood, European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 79 (2021) 1405-1417.
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  • [14] Cesari A., Loureiro M., Vale M., Yslas E., Dardanelli M., Marques A.C., Polycaprolactone microcapsules containing citric acid and naringin for plant growth and sustainable agriculture: physico-chemical properties and release behavior, Science of the Total Environment, 703 (2020) 1-11.
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  • [16] Favaro-Trindade C., Technological challenges for spray chilling encapsulation of functional food ingredients, Food Technology and Biotechnology, 51 (2013) 171.
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  • [18] Nogueira M., Prestes C., Burkert J., Microencapsulation by lyophilization of carotenoids produced by Phaffia rhodozyma with soy protein as the encapsulating agent, Food Science and Technology, 37 (2017) 1-4.
  • [19] Krupa I., Nógellová Z., Janigová I., Boh Podgornik B., Šumiga B., Kleinová A., Karkri M., AlMaadeed M.A., Phase change materials based on high-density polyethylene filled with microencapsulated paraffin wax, Energy Conversion and Management, 87 (2014) 400-409.
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  • [21] Chung U.S., Min J.H., Lee P.C., Koh W.G., Polyurethane matrix incorporating PDMS-based self-healing microcapsules with enhanced mechanical and thermal stability, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 518 (2017) 173-180.
  • [22] Thanawala K., Khanna A., Singh R., Development of self-healing coatings based on linseed oil as autonomous repairing agent for corrosion resistance, Materials, 7 (2014) 7324-7338.
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  • [24] Pretzl M., Neubauer M., Tekaat M., Kunert C., Kuttner C., Leon G., Berthier D., Erni P., Ouali L., Fery A., Formation and mechanical characterization ofaminoplast core/shell microcapsules, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 4 (2012) 2940-2948.
  • [25] Pan X.M., York D., Preece J.A., Zhang Z.B., Size and strength distributions of melamine-formaldehyde microcapsules prepared by membrane emulsification, Powder Technology, 227 (2012) 43-50.
  • [26] Mustapha A.N., AlMheiri M., AlShehhi N., Rajput N., Joshi S., Antunes A., AlTeneiji M., The Microencapsulation of Tung Oil with a Natural Hydrocolloid Emulsifier for Extrinsic Self-Healing Applications. Polymers (Basel). 14 (9) (2022) 1907.
  • [27] Hwang J.S., Kim J.N., Wee Y.J., Yun J.S., Jang H.G., Kim S.H., Ryu H.W., Preparation and characterization of melamine-formaldehyde resin microcapsules containing fragrant oil, Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 11 (2006) 332-336.
  • [28] Huang M., Yang J., Facile microencapsulation of HDI for self-healing anticorrosion coatings, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21 (2011) 11123-11130.
  • [29] Haghayegh M., Mirabedini M., Yeganeh H., Microcapsules containing multi-functional reactive isocyanate-terminated polyurethane prepolymer as a healing agent. Part 1: synthesis and optimization of reaction conditions, Journal of Materials Science, 51 (2016) 3056-3068.
  • [30] Wang D., Preparation and property analysis of melamine formaldehyde foam, Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, 2 (2012) 63-67.
  • [31] Zhu H., Xu S., Preparation and fire behavior of rigid polyurethane foams synthesized from modified urea-melamine-formaldehyde resins, RSC Advances, 8 (2018) 17879-17887.
  • [32] Mirghani M., Detection of formaldehyde in cheese using FTIR spectroscopy, International Food Research Journal, 24 (2017) 496-500.
  • [33] Saikia B., Dolui S., Designing semiencapsulation based covalently self-healable poly(methyl methacrylate) composites by atom transfer radical polymerization, Journal of Polymer Science Part A Polymer Chemistry, 54 (2016) 1842-1851.
  • [34] Weiss S., Urdl K., Mayer H., Zikulnig-Rusch E., Kandelbauer A., IR spectroscopy: Suitable method for determination of curing degree and crosslinking type in melamine-formaldehyde resins, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 47691 (2019) 1-10.
  • [35] Izzo F.C., Källbom A., Nevin A., Multi-analytical assessment of bodied drying oil varnishes and their use as binders in armour paints, Heritage, 4 (2021) 3402-3420.
  • [36] Xiao L., Huang, J., Wang Y., Chen J., Liu Z., Nie, X., Preparation of tung oil‐loaded PU/PANI microcapsules and synergetic anti‐corrosion properties of self‐healing epoxy coatings, ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 7 (20) (2019) 17344-17353.
  • [37] Pan P., Yan X., Peng W., Tung oil microcapsules prepared with different emulsifiers and their effects on the properties of coating film, Coatings, 12 (2022) 1166.
  • [38] Li H., Cui Y., Wang H., Zhu Y., Wang B., Preparation and application of polysulfone microcapsules containing tung oil in self-healing and self-lubricating epoxy coating, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 518 (2017) 181-187.
  • [39] Feng Y., Cui Y., Zhang M., Li M., Li H., Preparation of tung oil‐loaded PU/PANI microcapsules and synergetic anti‐corrosion properties of self‐healing epoxy coatings, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 306 (2) (2020) 2000581.
Year 2023, Volume: 44 Issue: 4, 703 - 709, 28.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.17776/csj.1299101

Abstract

References

  • [1] Snehal D., Swapna R., Manoj M., Chandrakant S., Microencapsulation: A review, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 6 (2013) 954-961.
  • [2] Oxley J., Stability and prediction of shelf-life for microencapsulated ingredients, Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech, 23 (2012) 60-63.
  • [3] Hu M., Guo J., Yu Y., Cao L., Xu Y., Research advances of microencapsulation and its prospects in the petroleum industry, Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 10 (4) (2017) 369.
  • [4] Bastos F., Santos L., Encapsulation of cosmetic active ingredients for topical application – a review, Journal of Microencapsulation, 33 (2015) 1-17.
  • [5] Ayoub A., Sood M., Singh J., Bandral J., Gupta N., Bhat A., Microencapsulation and its applications in food industry, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 8 (3) (2019) 32-37.
  • [6] Mamusa M., Resta C., Sofroniou C., Baglioni P., Encapsulation of volatile compounds in liquid media: Fragrances, flavors, and essential oils in commercial formulations, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 298 (2021) 102544.
  • [7] Singh M.N., Hemant K.S., Ram M., Shivakumar H.G., Microencapsulation: A promising technique for controlled drug delivery, Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5 (2) (2010) 65-77.
  • [8] Meng Q., Zhong S., He S., Gao Y., Cui X., Synthesis and characterization of curcumin-loaded pH/reduction dual-responsive folic acid modified carboxymethyl cellulose-based microcapsules for targeted drug delivery, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 105 (2022) 251-258.
  • [9] Konuklu Y., Unal M., Paksoy H.O., Microencapsulation of caprylic acid with different wall materials as phase change material for thermal energy storage, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 120 (2014) 536-542.
  • [10] Lin Y., Zhu C., Alva G., Fang G., Microencapsulation and thermal properties of myristic acid with ethyl cellulose shell for thermal energy storage, Applied Energy, 231 (2018) 494-501.
  • [11] Zou L., Li S., Li L., Ji W., Li Y., Cheng X., Synthesis of TiO2 shell microcapsule-based phase change film with thermal energy storage and buffering capabilities, Materials Today Sustainability, 18 (2022) 100119.
  • [12] Can A., Erkan G., Duran H., Sivrikaya H., Microencapsulated di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) with a polyurethane shell: characterization and its properties in wood, European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 79 (2021) 1405-1417.
  • [13] Tomaro-Duchesneau C., Saha S., Malhotra M., Kahouli I., Prakash S., Microencapsulation for the therapeutic delivery of drugs, live mammalian and bacterial cells, and other biopharmaceutics: Current status and future directions, Journal of Pharmaceutics, 103527 (2013) 1-19.
  • [14] Cesari A., Loureiro M., Vale M., Yslas E., Dardanelli M., Marques A.C., Polycaprolactone microcapsules containing citric acid and naringin for plant growth and sustainable agriculture: physico-chemical properties and release behavior, Science of the Total Environment, 703 (2020) 1-11.
  • [15] Mohammed N.K., Tan C.P., Manap Y.A., Muhialdin B.J., Hussin A.S.M., Spray drying for the encapsulation of oils-A review, Molecules, 25 (17) (2020).
  • [16] Favaro-Trindade C., Technological challenges for spray chilling encapsulation of functional food ingredients, Food Technology and Biotechnology, 51 (2013) 171.
  • [17] Seth D., Mishra H.N., Deka S.C., Effect of microencapsulation using extrusion technique on viability of bacterial cells during spray drying of sweetened yoghurt, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 103 (2017) 802-807.
  • [18] Nogueira M., Prestes C., Burkert J., Microencapsulation by lyophilization of carotenoids produced by Phaffia rhodozyma with soy protein as the encapsulating agent, Food Science and Technology, 37 (2017) 1-4.
  • [19] Krupa I., Nógellová Z., Janigová I., Boh Podgornik B., Šumiga B., Kleinová A., Karkri M., AlMaadeed M.A., Phase change materials based on high-density polyethylene filled with microencapsulated paraffin wax, Energy Conversion and Management, 87 (2014) 400-409.
  • [20] Soh S.H, Lee L., Microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation using supercritical fluid (SCF) techniques, Pharmaceutics, 11 (2019) 1-17.
  • [21] Chung U.S., Min J.H., Lee P.C., Koh W.G., Polyurethane matrix incorporating PDMS-based self-healing microcapsules with enhanced mechanical and thermal stability, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 518 (2017) 173-180.
  • [22] Thanawala K., Khanna A., Singh R., Development of self-healing coatings based on linseed oil as autonomous repairing agent for corrosion resistance, Materials, 7 (2014) 7324-7338.
  • [23] Jeong S.G., Jeon J., Seo J., Lee J.H., Kim S., Performance evaluation of the microencapsulated PCM for wood-based flooring application, Energy Conversion and Management, 64 (2012) 516-521.
  • [24] Pretzl M., Neubauer M., Tekaat M., Kunert C., Kuttner C., Leon G., Berthier D., Erni P., Ouali L., Fery A., Formation and mechanical characterization ofaminoplast core/shell microcapsules, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 4 (2012) 2940-2948.
  • [25] Pan X.M., York D., Preece J.A., Zhang Z.B., Size and strength distributions of melamine-formaldehyde microcapsules prepared by membrane emulsification, Powder Technology, 227 (2012) 43-50.
  • [26] Mustapha A.N., AlMheiri M., AlShehhi N., Rajput N., Joshi S., Antunes A., AlTeneiji M., The Microencapsulation of Tung Oil with a Natural Hydrocolloid Emulsifier for Extrinsic Self-Healing Applications. Polymers (Basel). 14 (9) (2022) 1907.
  • [27] Hwang J.S., Kim J.N., Wee Y.J., Yun J.S., Jang H.G., Kim S.H., Ryu H.W., Preparation and characterization of melamine-formaldehyde resin microcapsules containing fragrant oil, Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 11 (2006) 332-336.
  • [28] Huang M., Yang J., Facile microencapsulation of HDI for self-healing anticorrosion coatings, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21 (2011) 11123-11130.
  • [29] Haghayegh M., Mirabedini M., Yeganeh H., Microcapsules containing multi-functional reactive isocyanate-terminated polyurethane prepolymer as a healing agent. Part 1: synthesis and optimization of reaction conditions, Journal of Materials Science, 51 (2016) 3056-3068.
  • [30] Wang D., Preparation and property analysis of melamine formaldehyde foam, Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, 2 (2012) 63-67.
  • [31] Zhu H., Xu S., Preparation and fire behavior of rigid polyurethane foams synthesized from modified urea-melamine-formaldehyde resins, RSC Advances, 8 (2018) 17879-17887.
  • [32] Mirghani M., Detection of formaldehyde in cheese using FTIR spectroscopy, International Food Research Journal, 24 (2017) 496-500.
  • [33] Saikia B., Dolui S., Designing semiencapsulation based covalently self-healable poly(methyl methacrylate) composites by atom transfer radical polymerization, Journal of Polymer Science Part A Polymer Chemistry, 54 (2016) 1842-1851.
  • [34] Weiss S., Urdl K., Mayer H., Zikulnig-Rusch E., Kandelbauer A., IR spectroscopy: Suitable method for determination of curing degree and crosslinking type in melamine-formaldehyde resins, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 47691 (2019) 1-10.
  • [35] Izzo F.C., Källbom A., Nevin A., Multi-analytical assessment of bodied drying oil varnishes and their use as binders in armour paints, Heritage, 4 (2021) 3402-3420.
  • [36] Xiao L., Huang, J., Wang Y., Chen J., Liu Z., Nie, X., Preparation of tung oil‐loaded PU/PANI microcapsules and synergetic anti‐corrosion properties of self‐healing epoxy coatings, ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 7 (20) (2019) 17344-17353.
  • [37] Pan P., Yan X., Peng W., Tung oil microcapsules prepared with different emulsifiers and their effects on the properties of coating film, Coatings, 12 (2022) 1166.
  • [38] Li H., Cui Y., Wang H., Zhu Y., Wang B., Preparation and application of polysulfone microcapsules containing tung oil in self-healing and self-lubricating epoxy coating, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 518 (2017) 181-187.
  • [39] Feng Y., Cui Y., Zhang M., Li M., Li H., Preparation of tung oil‐loaded PU/PANI microcapsules and synergetic anti‐corrosion properties of self‐healing epoxy coatings, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 306 (2) (2020) 2000581.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Bioassays
Journal Section Natural Sciences
Authors

Tülin GÜRKAN POLAT 0000-0002-6545-0518

Ahmet GENÇER 0000-0002-4961-966X

Meltem ASİLTÜRK 0000-0001-8447-5684

Yılmaz AKSU 0000-0003-3687-890X

Project Number 3191369
Publication Date December 28, 2023
Submission Date May 24, 2023
Acceptance Date November 21, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 44 Issue: 4

Cite

APA GÜRKAN POLAT, T., GENÇER, A., ASİLTÜRK, M., AKSU, Y. (2023). Preparation and Characterization of Tung Oil Loaded Melamine Formaldehyde Microcapsules. Cumhuriyet Science Journal, 44(4), 703-709. https://doi.org/10.17776/csj.1299101